Saturday, July 18, 2020
13 Times Alices Adventures in Wonderland Got a Little Too Real During college I took a class on English literature before 1900. I took this class for two reasons: first, it fulfilled some credit requirements and second (and more importantly), I would get to study Aliceâs Adventures in Wonderland on an academic level. I adore Aliceâs Adventures in Wonderland. Absurdity and nonsense are what I strive for in life. Early in my current relationship, my partner read a number of books that are important to me in order to get to know me better. This included a trip down the rabbit hole with a special little girl. I try to give it a reread myself every couple of years and during my most recent journey through Wonderland there were a number of quotes and excerpts that struck me as a little too real and reflective of my own life: Alice had got so much into the way of expecting nothing but out-of-the-way things to happen, that it seemed quite dull and stupid for life to go on in the common way. In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering how in the world she was going to get out again. Plans? Consequences? Whereâs the adventure in that? She generally gave herself very good advice (though she very seldom followed it), and sometimes she scolded herself so severely as to bring tears into her eyes. When will I learn? Never. Never is when I will learn. âHow queer everything is today! And yesterday things went on just as usual. I wonder if Iâve changed in the night? Let me think: was I the same when I got up this morning? But if Iâm not the same, the next question is âWho in the world am I?â Ah, thatâs the great puzzle!â This is what keeps me up at night. âThe best way to explain it is to do it.â âI do wish I hadnât drunk quite so much.â You and me both, sister. âWould you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?â âThat depends a good deal on where you want to get to,â said the Cat. âI donât much care where â said Alice. âThen it doesnât matter which way you go,â said the Cat. â so long as I get somewhere,â Alice added as an explanation. âOh, youâre sure to do that,â said the Cat, âif you only walk long enough.â My friendâs 6th grade son had to write an essay on where he sees himself in twenty years. Just hearing this gives me anxiety. Iâm in my 30âs and I donât even know where I see myself in one year! âBut I donât want to go among mad people,â Alice remarked. âOh, you canât help that,â said the Cat; âweâre all mad here. Iâm mad. Youâre mad.â âHow do you know Iâm mad?â said Alice. âYou must be,â said the Cat, âor you wouldnât have come here.â âIf everybody minded their own business,â the Duchess said, in a hoarse growl, âthe world would go round a deal faster than it does.â âReally, now, you ask me,â said Alice, very much confused, âI donât think â âThen you shouldnât talk,â said the Hatter. âEverythingâs got a moral, if only you can find it.â My life tends to be one learning experience after another. âNo, no!â said the Queen. âSentence first verdict afterwards.â Too soon, Queen of Hearts. Too soon. âIf thereâs no meaning in it,â said the King, âthat saves a world of trouble, you know, as we neednât try to find any.â
Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Constitution and Individual Rights In the 1780s, many people agreed that the Articles of Confederation were not a strong enough plan of government for a newly born nation. Even though The Articles of Confederation won the Revolutionary War, there were many problems with the plan of government. The Articles of Confederation was made to prevent a strong national government and it only gave each state one vote in the Confederation Congress. It could not raise money and it only had one branch, the Legislature. In 1786, delegates from each state went to Philadelphia to draft a new Constitution for the United States. Fifty-five delegates came to Philadelphia convinced that the defects of the Articles of Confederation were so seriousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Smaller states wanted equal representation because they feared that larger states would run the national government. The voices in the smaller states would be left out and the Constitution would not preserve equality among the states. A special committee was made to make a compromise between representation. The compromise was called the Connecticut Compromise or the Great Compromise. The deal was that the House of Representatives would be proportional and the Senate would be equal representation. The House of Representatives would develop all bills for taxing and government spending and the Senate was limited to accepting or rejecting those bills. The two houses would form the national Congress. The legislative branch had enumerated powers. Section eight includes matters such powers as 1) to lay and collect taxes, 2) to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States, 3) to regulate commerce with foreign nations and states, 4) to declare war, 5) to raise an army and navy, and 6) to coin money. Other powers were clauses such as the necessary and proper clause and the supremacy clause. The necessary and proper clause was a law given to Congress to make any laws deemed necessary and proper for running the nation. The supremacy clause stated that the Constitution and all laws and treaties approved by Congress in exercising its enumerated powers are the supreme law of the land. TheShow MoreRelatedConstitution and Systems of Georgia Essay925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesConstitution and Systems of Georgia CaSandra Edmonds POL 215 January 10, 2011 Rosalind McAdams Constitution and Systems of Georgia Ã¢â¬Å"To perpetuate the principles of free government, insure justice to all, preserve peace, promote the interest and happiness of the citizen and of the familyÃ¢â¬ (Constitution of the state of Georgia, 2007, p. 4). These words begin the preamble of the Constitution of the State of Georgia. Within the realms of reality, every individual needs to believe that preservingRead MoreThe Bill of Rights: The Most Important Documents in American History1579 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Bill of Rights is one of the most important documents in American history. Bills of Rights have been included in official documents for hundred of years; the Magna Carta, signed by King John in 1215, was known to contain provisions to protect certain rights within his kingdom (History of the Bill of Rights, 2012). While there was much debate regarding the inclusion of a Bill of Rights into the Constitution, Congress did not approve the inclusion of twelve Amendments, or Twelve Articles, untilRead MoreE xternal Laws And Judicial Decisions919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLack of Absolution These rights enshrined in constitutions are rarely absolute. Constitutions often limit rights by making references to external laws, narrowing their scope to the public sphere, invoking religion, and pointing out the supremacy of other constitutional provisions. In addition, states often condition such rights on subjective considerations, including rights of others, order, security, and public morals. Notably, these limitations can produce negative consequences by infringingRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMy Federalist 2 The Constitution of the United States has been criticized on, primarily, three grounds. Firstly, the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s dealing with the rights of the people, or the lack thereof. Secondly, the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to mention the slaves within the several states. Finally, many point to the notion that the Constitution allows for a massive, corruptible government wherein an elite group of officials, or the majority of the people, can become tyrannical and work against the libertiesRead MoreThe United States Constitution Essay1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United States constitution was written in 1787 by the founding fathers of this country. Now it might be appropriate to question why a document that is the basis of the government for one of the most culturally and racially diverse countries in the world, was written by a group of heterosexual, cisgender, rich, white men. Some might think that a constitution written well over 200 years ago would be outdated and irre levant to the American society of today but with some research, it is quite theRead MoreDiscuss and Analyse the Arguments for and Against Adopting a Codified Constitution in the Uk.1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDiscuss and analyse the arguments for and against adopting a codified constitution in the UK. A constitution is a set of rules that seek to establish the duties, powers and functions of the various institutions of government. They also regulate the relationship between and among the institutions and define the relationship between the state and the individual. There are many different types of constitutions. The constitution that is in place in the UK is an uncodified one. In other words, it isRead MoreEvery Human Being in India has the Right to Education1814 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe right to education is a recognized fundamental human right of every human being. Every individual irrespective of his language, nationality, gender, race, religion or age is entitled to free elementary education. The right to education has been recognized as a universal human right by UDHRÃ¢â¬â¢s and is also incorporated in number of international conventions such as International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966, The Convention on Elimination of All Forms of DiscriminationRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States Of America Essay1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages To best understand any system of government, it is important to examine its origins. In the American system, the Constitution is held up as the ultimate document on how government functions in America. However, the writers of the Constitution had very different ideas about how government was to function ideally. These ideas formed two distinct camps of ideology: federalism and republicanism. The federalists were primarily concerned with how the collective was to function. In their eyes, every citizenRead MoreThe United States Bill Of Rights882 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStates Bill of Rights was created in September 25, 1789 and ratified December 15, 1791. The Bill of Rights are the first ten amendments to the Constitution that were established to defend our rights as individuals and as American citizens. The Bill of Rights describes the rights of its people. The first four articles of the amendments deal specifically with the balance of power between the federal government and state gover nment. There were some people who opposed to the Constitution because theyRead MoreU.s. Constitution Vs. Georgia Constitution859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesU.S. Constitution vs. Georgia Constitution Bill of Rights A Bill of Rights recognizes and lists the rights individuals have and protects those rights from governmental interference, unless of course there is a valid reason for government action to take place. While the Bill of Rights for the Georgia Constitution and the United States Constitution do just that, they do have some distinctive similarities and differences. For example, the major difference I see is the fact that the Georgia Bill of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
COMPARE AND CONTARST THE ATTITUDES OF THEN SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THOUGHT (TAYLOR et al) WITH THOSE OF THE HUAMAN RELTIONS MOVEMENT (MAYO et al) WITH REGARD TO PEOPLE AT WORK. Frederick Winslow Taylor also known as F.W.Taylor and George Elton Mayo have given some important definitions to the management work in the past. F.W.Taylor the Father of Scientific Management opposed the rule of thumb and said that there is only Ã¢â¬Ëone best way of doing workÃ¢â¬â¢ where as Elton Mayo proposed that the importance of groups affects the behaviour of individuals at work. As the topic suggests, there are many contrasts between Taylor and Mayo but the only similarity between these is that they both wanted to that more production can be possible onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For this, management should not close it ears to any constructive suggestions made by the employees. If any important decisions are taken, workers should be taken into confidence. At the same time workers should desist from going on strike and making unreasonable demands on management. According to Taylor, there should be an almost equal division of work and responsibility between workers and management. 4) Development of each and every person to His or Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity: - Taylor was of the view that the concern for efficiency could be built in right from the process of employee selection. Each person should be scientifically selected. The work assigned should suit her/his physical, mental and intellectual capabilities. To increase efficiency, they should be given the required training. Efficient employees would produce more and earn more. This will ensure their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both company and workers. Techniques of Scientific Management 1) Functional Foremanship: - Taylor concentrated on improving the performance of the foreman who represents the managerial figure with whom the workers are in face Ã¢â¬â to Ã¢â¬â face contact on daily basis. He identified a list of qualities of a good foreman/supervisor and found that no single person could fit them all. Thus, he promoted functional foremanship through eight persons. Under the factory manager there was a planning incharge and aShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast the Management Theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas Mcgregor. in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Similar and/or Compatible? in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Dissimilar and/or Incompatible? H...2126 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCompare and contrast the management theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas McGregor. In what sense(s) are these theories similar and/or compatible? In what sense(s) are these theories dissimilar and/or incompatible? How woul d a contingency theorist reconcile the points of dissimilarity and/or incompatibility between these approaches? The twentieth century has brought in a number of management theories which have helped shaped our view of management in the presentRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Management Theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas Mcgregor. in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Similar and/or Compatible? in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Dissimilar and/or Compatible? How Wo...1899 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesways to motivate employees and improve productivity. A need for management ideas arise which lead to classical contributors such as Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol generating management theories such as TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢ Scientific Management and FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s Administrative Management. In the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s the Hawthorne studies were conducted where Elton Mayo was the predominate figure and contributed to the Behavioural viewpoint. This brought about a Human Relations Movement which included DouglasRead MoreThe Scientific Model And Human Relations Model1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescapacity to change and think creatively. In order to do this, I will explore the key features of each model and compare and contrast them accordingly. I will also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models and consider the effect these have on current business challenges in developed economies. Main Body The scientific model of management was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 -1915) and was a response to the issue of production efficiency within factories. 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This is followed by the central tenets of both models and finally giving examples of how they are still applied in contemporary societyCompare and ContrastManagement articles usually consider Mayo as the founder of the Haman Relations Movement. It is true, but is kind of thought looks like human relations and Taylorism are opposedRead MoreScientific Management and Human Relations Movement2012 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Compare and contrast the attitudes of the Scientific School of Management thought (Taylor et al) with those of the Human Relations Movement (Mayo et al) with regard to people at workÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Getting things done through peopleÃ¢â¬ , according to Mary Parker Follet (1941) is management. Management is said to have no fixed definition, but different authorities on management have different views on it. There are many theories on management. The Classical Theory comprising Scientific Management of Taylor,Read MorePublic Sector Organizational Theory ( Postmodernism )1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPublic Sector Organizational Theory Introduction This essay compares and contrasts the Ã¢â¬Å"ClassicalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Human RelationsÃ¢â¬ approaches to management. It focuses on how these approaches are similar and compatible and looks at their differences and incompatibilities. It then explores how systems theory and contingency theory can reconcile the incompatibilities between the approaches. 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The classical management focuses on the efficiency andRead MoreThe Differences Between Scientific Management And The Human Relations Approach1878 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesGraham Word count: 1604 Essay Question Grey (2013), amongst others, argues that the differences between scientific management and the human relations approach are Ã¢â¬ËtacticalÃ¢â¬â¢ and that both are pursuing the same ends. Critically compare and contrast these two schools of management thought. If one were to look at successful companies today and ask; what is the key to their success? One would identify a few important factors. Of course their products and service
Abstract: During many weeks in 2010, the Football dilemma started to arise as a social issue in society. Raising the question of what should be done if any by the National Football League to prevent traumatic and sometimes deadly hits on the field. Varying degrees of opinions as to what should be done; questions include inquiring on the ethics of the NFL and their lack of safety toward players as any kind of progressive movement. We will write a custom essay sample on The Highlight Reel of Marxism in American Football or any similar topic only for you Order Now Stagnate would be the suitable term to use as describing the action taken by the NFL. Since the years of President Theodore Roosevelt, who wanted football outlawed in the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. The president himself could not enact the needed changes. American football is one of the largest industries in the nation with an overwhelming abundance of financial resources. So the question arises, why has there not been any fundamental change in the game or even changes in the guidelines that govern the sport? The answer would be Marxism. This paper will define NFLÃ¢â¬â¢s match to the Marxist perspective in their handling of players and their stagnant approach to change. This is a social a problem that relates to every aspect of society including the demise of the American family. This paper will also define the Marxism theory in relation the American football and the mental health epidemic caused by the dangers of the game. In recent weeks, the full contact sport of football has made headlines in America. There have been an overwhelming amount of injuries due to high impact contact to the head, which leads to various head injuries such as, concussions, spinal cord injuries, and deaths. According to Barry Wilner, The National Football League only represents a fraction of men playing the deadly sport. Colleges, universities, high schools, and middle schools have an overwhelming amount of young men who are amateur players. Many of these players suffer from some of the same forms of injuries and deaths as their pro counterparts playing in the National Football League. Leaving many to wonder the lag in the responsiveness for the NFL to make drastic changes after all the NFL is only has approx 1,900 players a season, leaving the separate class structures such as high school football and college football to absorb the majority of injuries related to football ndustry. In an article published by Paul Tenorino in, The Washington Post, he interviews George Atallah the assistant executive director of external affairs for the National Football League Players Association says, Ã¢â¬Å"He hoped the recent actions taken by the NFL and its players would help create a trickledown effect about the proper way to handle a concussion. Ã¢â¬ Based upon the actions and the structure of American football and NFL the majority of change is needed on lower levels within its system such as high school and middle school that represents more than 3. million players. Statistics do not lie. The numbers are the numbers. The vast majority of injuries are occurring outside of the National Football League. In a recent report published by Richard C. Senelick M. D has: Determined that there are only 1,900 active NFL players each season; There are more than 3 million children playing football at the youth level and 1. 2 million more playing high school football levels This report does not count the numerous collegiate athletes that play the sport. Colleges and universities along with various secondary education institutions have an epidemic on their hands and something needs to change, Ã¢â¬ ¦he has estimated that a college lineman experiences over 1,000 sub-concussive head hits in an average season. He further goes on to say that a line man in the 3 point stance is the most vulnerable of all the players to a brain injury. Explanation in the lack of commitment in the prevention of injuries from the National Football League can be related to the need for power and the valued economics of the professional athletic system that is described as the Marxist Theory, by taking that approach to football the National Football League developed system that only benefits them. According to Barry Wilner, Ã¢â¬Å"The National Football League has begun raising fines for illegal hits from the average $5,000 to $10,000 to now $50,000 and $75,000 and has even implemented suspensions for repeated illegal blows. Raising fines and illegal hit, but not changing how the game is played, taking money from the players/workers in order to promote change but not implementing change or being specific to what hits are no longer allowed. Is the money that is taken from fines of players at the professional used in research to develop safer equipment in order to create safer play? No, it is given directly to the pockets of the NFL, and its governing organization. In Marxist theory, human society and community consists of two parts: Base and Superstructure. The base structure is the material relation and condition of production Ã¢â¬â division of labor, property relation, employer/employee, slave/master condition and relation. The relations of the base structure fundamentally determines and influences societyÃ¢â¬â¢s other ideas and conditions, namely the Superstructure Ã¢â¬â arts, institutions, state, habits, customs, cultural representations like, law, philosophy, science, sports and etc. We can see this example portrayed out in the design of football in America linked to society within in its class structures of football from pee wee, to middle school, to high school, to college to NFL. According to Imani Cheers, Ã¢â¬Å"Studies have shown that amateur players run a higher risk of head injuries that those in The National Football League. Ã¢â¬ All linking classes are a step up from the other one; allowing the National Football League to draw upon the usage of varying football players. Example: at the age of six little Johnny and his father sit together and enjoy a game of Monday night football, JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s father emotions become ecstatic when little Johnny announces to everyone that he now wants to play football. Little JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s father begins working with him showing him passes catches , the proper way to tackle and ultimately how to become a Ã¢â¬Å"real manÃ¢â¬ by playing football. Soon, Johnny is registered for peewee league and in now fully indoctrinated into the system set up so well to train that allows the National football league to groom and condition them into their system. Playing in leagues that are not under any professional governing authority, regulations are not decided based on the protection of the younger player, medical guidelines are not based on the requirements set by standards from any medical organization who would know that; the bone plates in a young childÃ¢â¬â¢s head does not full fuse together till after the age of twenty. This allows the younger players to be very sustepiable to head injuries vs their much older professional counter parts. Eventually, Johnny is known for being dedicated to his favorite sport, in middle school Johnny respect for the game and his training teaches him to take riskÃ¢â¬â¢s on the field trying plays that he has never been fully trained on how to carry out. Soon developing the approach to allow risk taking is a permissible and even heroic if you just win the game. High school for Johnny brings more challenges and opportunity hoping to be spotted by a college scout and achieving the status of Ã¢â¬Å"real manÃ¢â¬ an occasional injury occurs from time to ime, but nothing Johnny cannot walk off and then return back to the game. Finally, a respectable college notices JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication and, determination to the sport, they offer him a scholarship if he will play for their school; bringing with it the dream of possibly being drafted into the National Football League. Johnny declares his value as a man to society, with the show of wealth and riches by his multimillion-dollar contract; he finally receives as pay to participate in his loved sport. Johnny begins his college football career with high hopes. As a college freshman he does well at practices and the coach decides to make him a second string lineman allowing him the opportunity to develop his football skills and sharpen his aptitude on the field. His second year playing college ball he is allowed more playing time during game but is not moved up and a first string lineman, giving him even more opportunity to develop his tackling regimen, after a couple of head injuries he is benched for the season, hoping he will recover by the start of the next season. The next season, JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s junior year, he is watched even more by coaches and supporting staff to make sure here are no issues from the previous seasonÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries. After a few games Johnny is finally moved up to first string lineman, allowing him the opportunity to achieve higher stats, he is further conditioned to play hurt, walking off the field and letting anyone know that he has just had his Ã¢â¬Å"bell rungÃ¢â¬ will only reduce the chance of him being able to play. Without pay, Johnny continues to play, sacrificing all for stats and the hopeful future of being drafted. Finally, JohnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s senior year, he makes first-string lineman; and is allowed to start the game, giving him even greater need to cover up injuries. During the middle of his senior year, he is injured and benched only for the following next play, he returns to the line of scrimmage; back playing he is knocked around, proving to himself that being a man means to play under any circumstance no matter what. Eventually, he is noticed by professional scouts who take an interest in him because of his dedication to the game and his sacrifice of playing hurt for his team. After all the hard work he finally is a third round draft pick. Placing Johnny in the top ninety men eligible for recruitment after college, by the professional league and finally earning wages for the sacrifices to his body he has made all these years. The system within the football structure shows a varying display of the different class categories within the professional football league; that organize in the same way as the Marxist set up of workers. Starting at the bottom and working your way up through promotions or to the top, the difference is that the football system requires years of hard work and sacrifice without pay until you reach the very top or professional level. The lower class levels in the system are not monitored by any labor board or governing body to insure the safety of players, because all players go without pay until the professional level is reached. All levels have the same positions; same amount of players on the field, and safety equipment. The majority of the rules are the same with the exception of weight limits in the peewee league. There are not weight limits in any of the other categories of football. In the peewee league, in order to play you can weigh up to a certain amount for position in which you carry the ball, and then after that weight is exceeded, you can only be a center guard or tackle. Meaning, you can have a seventy- five pound quarterback, which is at the top of the weight scale, and the tackle can weigh two hundred pounds. Varying weights depend on each league rules, within that division. Those divisions is not monitored, by any professional division, only until you play sports within an educational system does a league have governing bodies, charter rules, medical restrictions. Allowing football to becoming more and more dangerous of a sport as the chain of classes develops up the line of class structure by allowing bigger players and no regulation or guidelines monitored by professionals. Marx would tell you, that the type of sport that plays in a given society would precisely reflect its economic/production basis. All of this given in higher economical societies (superstructure) are reflected and directly influenced by their historical material/economic means; Marxism, the doctrine that the state throughout history has been a device for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class. That class struggle has been the main agency of historical change, and that the capitalist system, will after a period of dictatorship of the proletariat, be superseded by a socialist order and a classless society. Marxist sociology is based around five main theories that hypothesis as to how a society functions. Historical materialism, which portrays human history as a series of conflicts resulting from an old systems reshaped to fit the interest of the current society. The theory of surplus value, which describe how the capitalist make a profit from those who they employ; class division and struggle . Which, examine the bourgeois and the proletariat and how they conflict; alienation of the proletariat through the means and methods of the bourgeois. The Ã¢â¬Å"theory of politicsÃ¢â¬ explains how the inevitable transition of capitalism to communism in a society. The theory of surplus value explains, the way in which capitalists exploit consumers and make a profit from the goods that they sell. The capitalists own the raw material and the means to work with them. Profit, is then added to the raw material through necessary labor from the payment of workers to work with the raw material labor and the payment of labor, longer working hours and cheaper pay for the workers, which together allow the production of more for less. The goods are the sold for more money that was received, was paid to receive, and was paid to have the goods produced. This process means that capitalists make a profit from the workers and consumers that both produce and consume their products. These capalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ methods are clearly visible in professional football as identified by Brohm, as the spectator sport of commodity, which sells football along normal capitalist lines. Examples of these capitalist processes are illustrated and discussed in the text, Sport: a prison of measured time, authored by J. M Brohm. In the text, Brohm provides twenty theses on sports, eleven of which discuss the birth of modern capitalist sport. All the structures of present day sport tie in to bourgeois, capitalist societyÃ¢â¬ (Brohm 1978, p. 47). Some of these illustrate how capitalists use the systems present in society in order to make a profit. For a start the very existence of sport on the scale at which it is now played can be attributed to the capitalist bourgeois society, as summarized by Brohm who said, Ã¢â¬Å"Sport is a direct consequence of the level of development under the productive forces under capitalismÃ¢â¬ (1978, p. 176). What he means by this, is that due to the mechanization of the workforce by capitalists in order to produce more for less, workers found that they had more free time; time in which they took up sport as a form of recreation. This occurred during the industrial revolution, which meant that improved travel and communications allowed newly formed teams to organize, travel and play matches during the free time that they now had. Notice that, the free time, travel and communications that were now available to the working class were all controlled by the bourgeois, -allowing them to effectively continue to profit from the working class population. The way sports operate can easily be compared to how companies operate in the business sector Ã¢â¬â different sports compete for viewers (who are effectively consumers as they pay money to the clubs for merchandise or viewing purposes), and the relationships with which the athletes have with the team owners are very similar to wage relations between company managers and workers. Brohm stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"The capitalists of sport appropriate players and athletes who thus become their wage laborerÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ (1978, p. 76). This view on football enhances feelings that it is as an enterprise more than a competitive form of game used to entertain the viewer Ã¢â¬â a consequence of football adopted by capitalists as another form of profit. Football players are similar to the workers in the Marxist system Ã¢â¬â who sells their labor to someone who is willing to pay them. The capitalist then make a profit from the athlete by using them to create entertainment that will draw larg e crowds who will pay to watch the player perform. How much the employer makes from the player is determined by the law of supply and demand Ã¢â¬â if the player has a skill which is not found commonly then people will pay more to watch them and the employer makes a greater profit. Brohm said athletes of, Ã¢â¬Å"Amateurism ceased to exist a long time ago. All top level sportsmen are professional performers in the muscle show,Ã¢â¬ meaning that all top level sport is no longer about playing a fair but competitive game; it is about people making a profit (Brohm 1978, p. 176). This action is demonstrated in the NFLÃ¢â¬â¢s, lack to make significant changes to the structure in which the game is played. Instead of making changes in the structure, the NFL fines players for aggressive tackles, and further pockets the money. Never considering the health of players to be important enough to ensure their safety, head injuries are a major concern to the lives of the players. The future lives of players and the quality of daily living is not being considered when the 3 million children playing football at the youth level and 1. million more playing high school football level, are not protected against the sport of football. There remains a significant issue with medical care, monitoring, guidelines and problems with equipment. The NFL instead for pushing for regulation changes in the lower class structure, Ã¢â¬Å"hope a change in dealing with concussions,Ã¢â¬ will be a result of the NFL fining players. Knowing that the lower structures are where they draw their future players from, they refuse to implement real changes that require the structure as a whole to change. Changing the whole structure, as we know it today would ensure healthier players, giving the majority of players, longer playing time. Longer playing times in the lives of professional players would cost the NFL more money in contracts, health insurance, and retirement pension. No change in the system guarantees the future profits for the teams, and guarantees the NFL an abundance of already trained players, therefore relieving them any responsibility, or commitment in protecting the health of future football players. Football can therefore be identified as just another tertiary sector in the capitalist system where large amounts of money is stood to be made by investors who hire athletes to essentially sell to consumers, Ã¢â¬Å"Economic trusts, banks and monopolies have taken over the financial side of sporting activity, which has become a prized source of capitalist profitsÃ¢â¬ Brohm (1978, p. 177). Attempts by capitalists to maximize the profits they are making is shown by the increasing number of competitions and games that are played during each season in order to increase the number of people who come to watch. In addition to adding more game every year, the games rise in costs. It is not just the viewing rights that capitalists make money from, In order to increase profits further, we can see the production of goods and products, produced with necessary and surplus labor. Advertising rights being sold for money and the establishment of a sports betting industry all of which are sold for a greater cost than was used to produce them, allowing capitalists to benefit further from the sports industry, Leading to the support of hegemony. Football is a place where we can see the use of hegemony through sport is in class structure and social stratification. Sage, defines social stratification as, Ã¢â¬Å"structures that cause social inequality among groups of peopleÃ¢â¬ (1998, p. 35). This involves the bourgeois class using various methods of power to oppress the proletariat class football provide the bourgeois with a prime opportunity to do this. Ã¢â¬Å"The dominant classes control over the working class peoples free time was manifested in sportsÃ¢â¬ (Hargreaves 1986 p. 85). One of the ways that the bourgeois established control over the playing and administration of sports was that when sports were initially becoming popular among society. Football first played and taught at schools where the majority of pupils came from families of high social status. According to Sage, Ã¢â¬Å"Students of these colleges, that played American Football, when it first achieved popularity, were overwhelmingly from wealthy familiesÃ¢â¬ (Sage 1998, p. 44). Apart from not being present in the places where sport was evolving and improving, people from lower class backgrounds also had another disadvantage in that they had less money. Which limited how much access they could have to sport even if it was available to them, Ã¢â¬Å"the higher the economic status, the higher the sports involvement (Sage 1998 p. 44). Ã¢â¬ These factors meant that by the time working class people were consistently able to participate in sport, the bourgeois class were already in control of game formats, equipment and location, allowing them to continue to oppress the proletariat class of society through sport as well as other social mechanisms. How to cite The Highlight Reel of Marxism in American Football, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Joseph Conrad Conrad's novel, Heart of Darkness, relies on the historical period of imperialism in order to describe its protagonist, Charlie Marlow, and his struggle. Marlow's catharsis in the novel, as he goes to the Congo, rests on how he visualizes the effects of imperialism. This paper will analyze Marlow's "change," as caused by his exposure to the imperialistic nature of the historical period in which he lived. Marlow is asked by "the company", the organization for whom he works, to travel to the Congo river and report back to them about Mr. Kurtz, a top notch officer of theirs. When he sets sail, he doesn't know what to expect. When his journey is completed, this little "trip" will have changed Marlow forever! Heart of Darkness is a story of one man's journey through the African Congo and the "enlightenment" of his soul. It begins with Charlie Marlow, along with a few of his comrades, cruising aboard the Nellie, a traditional sailboat. On the boat, Marlow begins to tell of his experiences in the Congo. Conrad uses Marlow to reveal all the personal thoughts and emotions that he wants to portray while Marlow goes on this "voyage of a lifetime". Marlow begins his voyage as an ordinary English sailor who is traveling to the African Congo on a "business trip". He is an Englishmen through and through. He's never been exposed to any alternative form of culture, similar to the one he will encounter in Africa, and he has no idea about the drastically different culture that exists out there. Throughout the book, Conrad, via Marlow's observations, reveals to the reader the naive mentality shared by every European. Marlow as well, shares this naivet? in the beginning of his voyage. However, after his first few moments in the Congo, he realizes the ignorance he and all his comrades possess. We first recognize the general naivet? of the Europeans when Marlow's aunt is seeing him for the last time before he embarks on his journey. Marlow's aunt is under the assumption that the voyage is a mission to "wean those ignorant millions from their horrid ways"(18-19). In reality, however, the Europeans are there in the name of imperialism and their sole objective is to earn a substantial profit by collecting all the ivory in Africa. Another manifestation of the Europeans obliviousness towards reality is seen when Marlow is recounting his adventure aboard the Nellie. He addresses his comrades who are on board saying: "When you have to attend to things of that sort, to the mere incidents of the surface, the reality--the reality I tell you---fades. The inner truth is hidden luckily, luckily. But I felt it all the same; I felt often its mysterious stillness watching over me at my monkey tricks, just as it watches you fellows performing on your respective tight ropes for---what is it? half a crown a tumble---(56)." What Marlow is saying is that while he is in the Congo, although he has to concentrate on the petty little everyday things, such as overseeing the repair of his boat, he is still aware of what is going on around him and of the horrible reality in which he is in the midst of. On the other hand, his friends on the boat simply don't know of these realities. It is their ignorance, as well as their innocence which provokes them to say "Try to be civil, Marlow"(57). Not only are they oblivious to the reality which Marlow is exposed to, but their naivet? is so great, they can't even comprehend a place where this 'so called' reality would even be a bad dream! Hence, their response is clearly rebuking the words of a "savage" for having said something so ridiculous and "uncivilized". Quite surprisingly, this mentality does not pertain exclusively to the Englishmen in Europe. At one point during Marlow's voyage down the Congo, his boat hits an enormous patch of fog. At that very instant, a "very loud cry" is let out(66). After Marlow looks around and makes sure everything is all right, he observes the contrasts of the whites and the blacks expressions. It was very curious to see the contrast of expression of the white men and of the black fellows
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Mysterious Rage Unknown Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ is a story written by Edgar Allan Poe. He writes about a man who goes mad by being disturbed by the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. The man is driven insane over the eye and leads to the murder of the old man in cold blood. The manÃ¢â¬â¢s own conscience eats away at him until he finally confesses to this horrific dead. The central idea in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story is from a psychological point of view that illustrates the smallest features on one human being can drive someone crazy. It also shows how insane individuals think as if sane but cannot live with the guilty conscience without expressing their act of violence to someone before it makes them imagine things that are not even there. The protagonist in the story is the man who takes care of or lives with the old man. The man considers himself to be smarter than the normal madman. We see this characteristic when he questions himself with Ã¢â¬Å"would a madman have been so wise as this?Ã¢â¬ referring to the ease at which he enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room (1572). The man is a dynamic character that thinks he is fine in the beginning of the story but by the end just canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle this guilty conscience and falls apart. The characteristic is shown with the comment Ã¢â¬Å"I admit the deed! - tear up the planks! - here, here!Ã¢â¬ (1575). This story is written chronologically. The structure fits the events in the story perfectly. The primary conflict is internal. The eye bothers the man, and he describes it as Ã¢â¬Å"that of a vultureÃ¢â¬ (1572). The man copes with his conflict by making the choice to Ã¢â¬Å"take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye foreverÃ¢â¬ (1572). On the eighth day, with the eye open, the man enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room with a loud yell and takes his life. This resolution to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict reveals how one personality is another manÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story takes place in a house with wooden floors and hinged doors... Free Essays on Mysterious Rage Free Essays on Mysterious Rage Mysterious Rage Unknown Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ is a story written by Edgar Allan Poe. He writes about a man who goes mad by being disturbed by the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. The man is driven insane over the eye and leads to the murder of the old man in cold blood. The manÃ¢â¬â¢s own conscience eats away at him until he finally confesses to this horrific dead. The central idea in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story is from a psychological point of view that illustrates the smallest features on one human being can drive someone crazy. It also shows how insane individuals think as if sane but cannot live with the guilty conscience without expressing their act of violence to someone before it makes them imagine things that are not even there. The protagonist in the story is the man who takes care of or lives with the old man. The man considers himself to be smarter than the normal madman. We see this characteristic when he questions himself with Ã¢â¬Å"would a madman have been so wise as this?Ã¢â¬ referring to the ease at which he enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room (1572). The man is a dynamic character that thinks he is fine in the beginning of the story but by the end just canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle this guilty conscience and falls apart. The characteristic is shown with the comment Ã¢â¬Å"I admit the deed! - tear up the planks! - here, here!Ã¢â¬ (1575). This story is written chronologically. The structure fits the events in the story perfectly. The primary conflict is internal. The eye bothers the man, and he describes it as Ã¢â¬Å"that of a vultureÃ¢â¬ (1572). The man copes with his conflict by making the choice to Ã¢â¬Å"take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye foreverÃ¢â¬ (1572). On the eighth day, with the eye open, the man enters the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s room with a loud yell and takes his life. This resolution to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict reveals how one personality is another manÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story takes place in a house with wooden floors and hinged doors...
Monday, March 2, 2020
When to Ask for Graduate School Recommendation Letters Faculty members are busy people and graduate admissions time falls at an especially hectic point in the academic year - usually at the end of the fall semester. It is important that hopeful applicants demonstrate respect for theirÃ letter writers time by providing them with plenty of advance notice. Although at least a month is preferable, more is better and less than two weeks is unacceptable - and will likely be met with a no by the faculty member. The ideal time to give a letter writer, though, is anywhere from one to two months before the letter is due with your submission. What Letter Writers Need From the Applicant Chances are, the letter writer a graduate school applicant has selected knows him or her on a professional and personal level and will, therefore, have a good foundation for what should be included,Ã but he or she may need a bit more information about the program being applied to, the applicants goals in applying, and even perhaps a bit more information about the applicants academic and professional careers. When asking a peer, colleague, or faculty member to write a letter of recommendation, it is important the writer knows the finer points of the program being applied to. For instance, if the applicant is requesting a letter for a medical graduate school as opposed to a graduate law school, the writer would want to include accomplishments the applicant has made in the medical field while under his or her guidance. Understanding the applicants goals in continuing to pursue an education will also benefit the writer. If,Ã for instance, the applicant hopes to further his or her understanding of a field as opposed to progressing his career, the writer may want to include independent research projects he or she helped the applicant with or a particularly strong academic paper the student wrote on the matter. Finally, the more details an applicant is able to provide the letter writer about his or her accomplishments in academic or professional pursuits of the degree, the better the letter of recommendation will be. Even a students most trusted advisor might not know the full breadth of his or her achievements, so its important they give a bit of a background on their history in the field. What to Do After Getting a Letter Provided the applicant gave the letter writer enough time before the application deadline, there are a few things the applicant should do after receiving his or her recommendation letter. First things first - applicants should read the letter and make sure none of the information in it is erroneous or contradicts other parts of their application. If an error is spotted, its perfectly acceptable to ask the writer to have another look and inform them of the mistake.Ã Secondly, its very important that applicants write a thank you letter, note, or some sort of gesture of gratitude toward the faculty member or colleague who wrote the letter - this little thanks goes a long way in maintaining important professional connections in a related field (since most letter writers should be affiliated with the field of study the applicant is pursuing).Finally, applicants must not forget to send the letter with their graduate school applications. It may seem obvious, but the number of times these vital pieces of paper fall to the wayside in the chaos of applying bears repeating: do not forget to send the recommendation letter.